Ludwig Moser & Sons was founded in Karlsbad, Austria, in 1857 today, this Czech Republic city is known as Karlovy Vary. Moser perfected numerous cold-working techniques, from engraving and carving to gilding and painting. Later, the firm would also become known for its sparkling cut crystal, which was produced without the use of lead.
In its first few decades, no glass was blown or manufactured at Moser. The focus was entirely on engraving and polishing blanks provided by Loetz and other Bohemian glassworks. But by the end of the century, though, Moser had built its own factory and was supplying the highest quality cut and decorated glassware to Franz Josef I, the Emperor of Austria. A commission for Edward VII of England followed in 1908 and for the rest of the century, Moser would produce glass for monarchs, maharajahs, and popes.